International Online Journal of Language, Communication, and Humanities http://insaniah.umk.edu.my/journal/index.php/insaniah <div> <p>International Online Journal of Language, Communication,&nbsp;and Humanities (INSANIAH) is a high quality peer reviewed, open access research journal that is published online by the Centre for Language Studies and Generic Development, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan. INSANIAH is published twice a year and provides the platform for researchers, academics, professionals, practitioners and students to impart and share knowledge in areas related to language, education, social work, communication as well as history and civilisation.&nbsp;</p> </div> <div> <p>INSANIAH welcomes and acknowledges high quality theoretical and empirical original research papers, case studies, review papers, conceptual papers, literature reviews, book reviews, and conceptual framework. Articles are accepted in English and Malay language.</p> <p>Peer Review Process<br>All manuscripts are reviewed by at least two (2) reviewers. Authors are encouraged to suggest up to three reviewers. Final decisions will be made after authors have carried out all of the corrections recommended by the reviewers.&nbsp;<br>Normal turn-around time for evaluation of manuscripts is between five and seven months from the date of receipt. Authors can opt for fast track review for a fee.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> Universiti Malaysia Kelantan Press en-US International Online Journal of Language, Communication, and Humanities 2637-0360 <p>It is the author's responsibility to ensure that his or her submitted work does not infringe any existing copyright. Furthermore, the author indemnifies the editors and publisher against any breach of such a warranty. Authors should obtain permission to reproduce or adapt copyrighted material and provide evidence of approval upon submitting the final version of a manuscript. This journal does not allow the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions or retain publishing rights without restrictions.</p> <p><span style="color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.87); font-family: 'Noto Sans', -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen-Sans, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">Papers are accepted on the understanding that they have not been and will not be published elsewhere. On the decision of the editors, authorities in the relevant field will review the papers blindly. The editors have the final decision on publication. Papers on acceptance become the copyright of UMK Publisher. To assist publication, authors will be requested to submit a copy in Microsoft Word format of their final manuscript. The journal will be published in online.</span></p> Penguasaan Komponen Retorik Bahasa Arab dalam kalangan Pelajar Peringkat Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) http://insaniah.umk.edu.my/journal/index.php/insaniah/article/view/61 <p>Ilmu retorik atau <em>al-Bal</em><em>a</em><em>ghah </em>adalah salah satu komponen dalam Sukatan Pelajaran Bahasa Arab peringkat Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) kelolaan Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia (KPM). Artikel ini bertujuan mengenal pasti penguasaan pelajar terhadap komponen tersebut merangkumi aspek persepsi, kefahaman dan kekangan yang dihadapi pelajar. Fokus kajian terhadap topik <em>haqiqah </em>dan<em> maj</em><em>a</em><em>z</em> termasuk sub topik <em>maj</em><em>a</em><em>z mursal </em>dan <em>isti‘</em><em>a</em><em>rah</em>. Kajian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif secara deskriptif. Pengumpulan data menggunakan instrumen soal selidik dan ujian kefahaman yang dijalankan ke atas sampel yang dipilih secara rawak. Sampel melibatkan pelajar tingkatan lima seramai 100 orang daripada dua buah Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Agama (SMKA) di negeri Kelantan. Dapatan kajian mendapati aspek<strong>-</strong>aspek yang diukur berada pada tahap yang sederhana. Hal ini menunjukkan tahap penguasaan pelajar terhadap komponen tersebut belum memuaskan. Dapatan juga menunjukkan pelajar menghadapi kekangan tertentu dalam menguasai komponen retorik bahasa Arab. Perkara ini secara langsung memberi kesan terhadap gaya dan prestasi pembelajaran dalam menguasai komponen tersebut. Dapatan juga menunjukkan topik <em>haqiqah </em>dan<em> maj</em><em>a</em><em>z</em> paling senang dikuasai berada pada tahap mudah, diikuti topik <em>maj</em><em>a</em><em>z mursal</em> berada pada tahap sederhana, manakala topik<em> isti‘</em><em>a</em><em>rah </em>berada pada tahap sukar. Dapatan kajian ini dapat membantu pelbagai pihak terutama guru dalam mengatur strategi pengajaran komponen <em>balaghah</em> dengan lebih berkesan.</p> <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Rhetorical knowledge, also known as <em>al-balagah</em>, is a component of the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) examination from the Malaysian Ministry of Education (KPM). This article aims to identify student mastery of this component in terms of the perceptions, understanding and limitations faced by students. This study especially focuses on the topics of <em>haqiqah</em> and <em>majaz</em>, including the subtopics of <em>majaz mursal</em> and <em>isti’arah.</em>&nbsp; The study employs a quantitative and descriptive method.&nbsp; Data collection techniques included questionnaires and comprehension test among a randomly selected sample. The sample used to represent the population was selected from among the Form Five students who will sit for the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM). A total of 100 students were selected for the study sample. Ten students were also interviewed. Based on the findings, the authors found that the mastery level of secondary school students based on their perception of these topics as a whole was at a moderate level, while mastery of the topic was at a moderately low level. Findings for the constraint aspect on mastering the whole topic was also at a moderate level. This shows the mastery levels of the <em>haqiqah</em> and <em>majaz </em>topics and <em>majaz mursal</em> and <em>isti'arah </em>sub-topics among secondary students are not satisfactory, reflecting students’ ability to master these topics. The findings also show that the <em>haqiqah</em> and <em>majaz</em> topics are easier to master at the elementary level, followed by <em>majaz mursal </em>topic at the moderate level, with the <em>isti'arah</em> topic at the difficult level.</p> Abdul Aziz Ibrahim Mohd Zaki Abdul Rahman Azhar Muhammad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2 2 1 16 Pembangunan Kerohanian dan Intelektual Insan Berasaskan Empat Akhlak Utama Shah Wali Allah al-Dihlawi http://insaniah.umk.edu.my/journal/index.php/insaniah/article/view/42 <p>Kepesatan perkembangan dan kemajuan globalisasi masa kini memberi kesan kepada kerohanian dan intelektual masyarakat seluruh dunia. Artikel ini bertujuan menjelaskan konsep dan permasalahan pembangunan kerohanian dan intelektual yang melanda umat Islam kini, menghuraikan empat akhlak utama menurut Shah Wali Allah dan menganalisis empat akhlak utama sebagai asas pembangunan kerohanian dan intelektual insan. Kaedah kualitatif melalui kajian kepustakaan digunakan bagi mendapatkan fakta dan data yang berkaitan dengan pembangunan kerohanian dan intelek insan dan empat akhlak utama Shah Wali Allah. Analisis dokumen juga turut digunakan khususnya terhadap kitab <em>Hujjah Allah al-Balighah</em> dalam memahami empat akhlak utama Shah Wali Allah. Hasil kajian mendapati pembangunan kerohanian dan intelek insan seharusnya didasarkan pada empat akhlak utama Shah Wali Allah, iaitu <em>thaharah, ikhbat li Allah Ta‘ala, al-samahah</em> dan <em>al-‘adalah</em>. Hal ini dapat membentuk dan mengukuhkan lagi kerohanian dan intelektual insan yang selari dengan al-Quran dan al-Sunnah seterusnya mampu menyelesaikan masalah kecelaruan pemikiran dan kejiwaan yang melanda umat Islam lebih-lebih lagi dalam dunia globalisasi kini.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>The speed of development and the advancement of globalization today affects the spirituality and intellectuals of the world community.&nbsp;This article aims at explaining the concepts and problems of the spiritual and intellectual development that has affected Muslims today, describing four major character virtues according to Shah Wali Allah and analyzing four major moral principles as the basis of spiritual and intellectual development.&nbsp;Qualitative method through literature study is used to obtain facts and data related to spiritual and intellectual development of human beings and the four main characters of Shah Wali Allah. Document analysis is also used especially in the book of&nbsp;<em>Hujjah</em>&nbsp;<em>Allah al-Balighah</em>&nbsp;in understanding the four main characters of Shah Wali Allah.&nbsp;The findings&nbsp;<em>suggest</em>&nbsp;that the development of spirituality and human intellect should be based on the four main&nbsp;characters&nbsp;of Shah Wali Allah, namely the&nbsp;<em>thaharah, ikhbat li Allah</em>&nbsp;<em>Ta‘ala, al-samahah</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>al-‘adalah</em>&nbsp;.&nbsp;This can shape and reinforce the spirituality and intellectuals that are in line with the Quran and al-Sunnah to further solve the problem of psychological and psychological disorder that has greater infliction upon Muslims in today's world of globalization.</p> Noraini Junoh Norazmila Yusuf ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2 2 17 34 Kesediaan Pelajar Terhadap Penggunaan Aplikasi Kahoot! Dalam Pembelajaran Bahasa Arab http://insaniah.umk.edu.my/journal/index.php/insaniah/article/view/66 <p>Teknologi digital memainkan peranan yang penting dalam menjadikan pembelajaran menarik dan menyeronokkan.&nbsp; Kahoot! adalah merupakan di antara aplikasi yang dapat mewujudkan suasana pembelajaran secara interaktif yang berkesan dan menyeronokkan. Walaupun demikian, kesediaan pelajar terhadap penggunaannya dalam kelas pembelajaran bahasa Arab Komunikasi di UiTM Kelantan masih belum dikaji.&nbsp; Oleh itu, kajian ini dijalankan untuk melihat faktor yang mendorong niat mereka untuk menggunakannya dalam kelas pembelajaran berdasarkan kepada perspektif Model Penerimaan Teknologi (TAM).&nbsp; Pengaruh dua pemboleh ubah model ini, iaitu jangkaan kebergunaan (JK) dan jangkaan mudah guna (JMG) dikaji.&nbsp; Sebanyak 222 data diperoleh daripada responden yang terdiri daripada pelajar yang program Diploma Pengurusan Perniagaan di UiTM Cawangan Kelantan.&nbsp; Data dianalisis menggunakan perisian SmartPLS 3.2.6.&nbsp; Dapatan kajian menunjukkan faktor&nbsp; jangkaan mudah guna (JMG) (<em>ß</em> = 0. 370, <em>t</em> = 5.203, <em>p</em>&lt; 0.01, <em>f</em><sup>2</sup> = 0.119) merupakan faktor utama yang yang mendorong niat mereka untuk menggunakannya dalam kelas diikuti dengan faktor jangkaan kebergunaan (JK) (<em>ß</em> = 0. 335, <em>t</em> = 5.054, <em>p</em>&lt; 0.01, <em>f</em><sup>2</sup> = 0.098). Nilai <em>R</em><sup>2</sup> bagi niat untuk menggunakan aplikasi Kahoot! yang besar iaitu sebanyak 0.423 menunjukkan 42.3% daripada varian kesediaan responden untuk menggunakan aplikasi Kahoot! disumbangkan oleh dua pemboleh ubah yang dikaji.&nbsp; Selain itu, pengaruh di antara faktor iaitu jangkaan kebergunaan (JK) terhadap jangkaan mudah guna (JMG) (<em>ß</em> = 0. 705, <em>t</em> = 19.242, <em>p</em>&lt; 0.01, <em>f</em><sup>2</sup> = 0. 0.988) menunjukkan kebergunaan aplikasi Kahoot pada pandangan pelajar banyak bergantung kepada faktor jangkaan mudah guna dengan jumlah varian jangkaan kebergunaan sebanyak 49.7%.&nbsp; Dapatan analisis IPMA juga menunjukkan bahawa di antara dua indikator TAM, jangkaan mudah guna merupakan faktor paling penting yang mempengaruhi niat pelajar untuk menggunakan aplikasi Kahoot!.&nbsp; Dapatan kajian ini diharapkan dapat memberikan sumbangan yang bermakna terhadap pensyarah bahasa Arab dalam mengenal pasti faktor-faktor yang mendorong niat pelajar untuk menggunakan aplikasi Kahoot! dalam kelas berdasarkan kepada perspektif Model Penerimaan Teknologi (TAM) di UiTM Kelantan.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Digital technology plays an important role in making learning exciting and fun. Kahoot! is one of the applications that can create interactive and effective learning environment. However, students' readiness in using Kahoot! in Arabic Communication classes at UiTM Kelantan has not been investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to look at factors that influence their intention to use it in the classroom based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) perspective. The effects of these two variables, namely perceived usefulness (JK) and perceived ease of use (JMG), are studied. A total of 222 data were obtained from respondents comprising of Diploma in Business Management students at UiTM Kelantan Branch. Data were analyzed using SmartPLS 3.2.6 software. The findings indicated that perceived ease of use (JMG) (<em>ß</em> = 0. 370, <em>t</em> = 5.203, <em>p</em>&lt; 0.01, <em>f</em><sup>2</sup> = 0.119) was the main factor in driving their intention to use it in the classroom followed by perceived usefulness (JK) (<em>ß</em> = 0. 335, <em>t</em> = 5.054, <em>p</em>&lt; 0.01, <em>f</em><sup>2</sup> = 0.098). <em>R</em><sup>2</sup> value for the intention to use Kahoot was 0.423 which meant 42.3% of the respondents' readiness to use Kahoot! was contributed by two variables being studied. In addition, the influencing factor of perceived usefulness (JK) on perceived ease of use (JMG) (<em>ß</em> = 0. 705, <em>t</em> = 19.242, <em>p</em>&lt; 0.01, <em>f</em><sup>2</sup> = 0. 0.988) indicated that the usefulness of Kahoot in the student's view was largely dependent on the perceived ease of use factor with a total variance of 49.7% for perceived usefulness.&nbsp; IPMA analysis also showed that between the two TAM indicators, perceived ease of use had the most impact on students' intention to use Kahoot!.&nbsp; The findings of this study are expected to make significant contributions to Arabic language learners in identifying the factors that influence students' intention to use Kahoot! in the classroom at UiTM Kelantan based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) perspective.</p> Muhammad Saiful Anuar Yusoff Shahrizal Mahpol Muhammad Luqman Mohd Saad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2 2 35 50 Hubungan Kerjasama Masyarakat Dalam Projek Makmal Sosial Di Kg. Takang, Bachok, Kelantan http://insaniah.umk.edu.my/journal/index.php/insaniah/article/view/59 <p>&nbsp;Hubungan kerjasama memainkan peranan penting dalam mewujudkan suasana harmoni dalam masyarakat. Oleh sebab itu, hubungan kerjasama menjadi cita-cita seluruh masyarakat untuk hidup secara aman dan harmoni. Masyarakat sering mengalami konflik kerana tidak mengenali antara satu sama lain dan kurang berinteraksi. Oleh sebab itu, aktiviti kemasyarakatan mampu membawa masyarakat untuk bertemu dan membina hubungan yang baik. Masyarakat Kg. Takang, Bachok, Kelantan merupakan sebuah kampung yang aktif dalam melakukan aktiviti-aktiviti kemasyarakatan dan telah dijadikan sebagai makmal sosial oleh Pusat Pengajian Bahasa dan Pembangunan Insaniah, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan pada tahun 2017. Ekoran itu, hubungan masyarakat semakin erat dan wujud hubungan kerjasama yang baik. Oleh demikian, artikel ini bertujuan mengenal pasti dan menganalisis aktiviti-aktiviti kemasyarakatan yang telah berjaya membina hubungan kerjasama dalam masyarakat di Kg. Takang. Artikel ini menggunakan kaedah pengumpulan data melalui kajian kepustakaan, temu bual mendalam dan pemerhatian. Manakala, analisis kandungan digunakan untuk menganalisis data yang diperoleh. Hasil dapatan mendapati bahawa hubungan kerjasama dalam masyarakat wujud kerana masyarakat begitu aktif melaksanakan aktiviti-aktiviti kemasyarakatan secara kolektif dan berterusan. Model Pembangunan Komuniti <em>Hijraturrasul</em> yang menerapkan prinsip <em>aulawiyyat</em> (keutamaan) yang diperaktikkan dalam Program Makmal Sosial ini memberi impak positif kepada masyarakat Kg. Takang.</p> <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Cooperative relationship plays an important role in creating a harmonious atmosphere in the society. Due to this, cooperation is considered an utmost goal of living peacefully and harmoniously within a society. Communities often experience conflict because of the lack of interaction with one another and having less opportunities to get to know each other. Hence, social activities can bring people closer to meet and build better and enhanced relationships. This was one of reasons why Kg. Takang, Bachok, Kelantan was selected as the location of the study&nbsp; as it is known to be a proactive village in executing community activities and has been made a ‘social laboratory’ by the Center for Language Studies and Generic Development of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan in 2017. Consequently, this communal relationship have increasingly grown closer and cooperation too have also improved. This article aims to identify and analyze communal activities that have succeeded in establishing cooperative relationships within the community in Kg. Takang. The method of data collection used for this study comprised of library research, in-depth interviews and observations. Content analysis was also used to analyze the data. The findings show that cooperative relationship exists because society is actively engaged in collective and ongoing community activities. The <em>Hijraturrasul</em> Community Development Model which incorporates the principles of <em>aulawiyyat </em>(priority) practiced in the ‘Social Laboratory’ Programme has a positive impact on the Kg. Takang.</p> Zaleha Embong Noor Hisham Md Nawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2 2 51 63 Tinjauan Awal Tahap Penglibatan Para Hafiz Al-Quran Dalam Skim Hafaz Al-Quran, Terengganu http://insaniah.umk.edu.my/journal/index.php/insaniah/article/view/72 <p>Para hafiz al-Quran ialah golongan yang sangat mulia di sisi Allah S.W.T. Walau bagaimanapun, ia bukanlah suatu kemasyhuran atau kemegahan tetapi merupakan amanah yang sangat berat untuk dipikul berikutan terlalu banyak cabaran dan halangan yang perlu ditempuhi oleh para hafiz al-Quran ini demi&nbsp; mengukuhkan dan memantapkan al-Quran di dada. Oleh itu, proses pengujian dalam hafalan al-Quran perlu dilakukan sebagai suatu mekanisma yang boleh mengukur pencapaian sesuatu matlamat sesebuah pembelajaran yang berlangsung. Bagi menyahut cabaran ini, Jabatan Hal Ehwal Agama Terengganu (JHEAT) telah mengambil inisiatif memperkenalkan Skim Hafaz al-Quran sebagai saluran penilaian hafalan al-Quran secara berterusan terhadap para hafiz. Kajian rintis ini melibatkan seramai 43 orang responden yang dipilih secara rawak dalam kalangan peserta Skim Hafaz al-Quran. Instrumen soal selidik telah digunakan dalam kajian ini. Data kajian dianalisis secara deskriptif menggunakan min dan peratus. Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa kebanyakan peserta Skim Hafaz al-Quran, majoritinya adalah lelaki dan hanya sedikit sahaja perempuan. Selain itu, graduan tahfiz swasta lebih ramai menyertai ujian ini berbanding tahfiz kerajaan serta majoriti peserta adalah dalam kalangan yang baru menamatkan pengajian sekitar 1-4 tahun dari pusat tahfiz terdahulu. Kajian ini penting bagi mengesan penglibatan para hafiz al-Quran dalam Ujian Skim. Diharapkan agar kajian ini dapat membantu pihak jawatankuasa Skim Hafaz al-Quran bagi mencari pendekatan yang lebih baik untuk menggalakkan penyertaan secara menyeluruh graduan tahfiz al-Quran.</p> <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>The Hafiz al Quran is indeed glorified by Allah S.W.T. However, it is not merely a pride yet huge obligation for them to carry as there are numerous obstacles coming along their journey in memorizing the Holy Quran. Hence, the ongoing assessment in Quran memorization have to be conducted as the mechanism that can validate the achievement of particular purposes of the ongoing lesson. To accept the challenge, JHEAT has taken the initiative in introducing the Quran Memorisation Scheme as the channel for the ongoing assessment of Quran memorization among the Hafiz in Terengganu. The survey is conducted to give an overview of the backgrounds of the participants. This research is conducted to identify the participation of Hafiz in the scheme organized by JHEAT. The finding shows that most of the Quran Memorisation Scheme participants are comprised of male participants compared to female participants. Majority of them are among the graduates from private tahfiz and those who were just finished their study from their previous tahfiz, approximately 1-4 years ago. It is highly hoped that this research can help the Quran Memorisation Scheme committee members especially in seeking a better approach to encourage full participation among the tahfiz graduates to achieve the objectives of tahfiz learning which is to produce the best Quran hafiz that has good Quran memorisation skills.</p> Wan Khalijah Wan Jusoh Mohd A’Tarahim Mohd Razali Ahmad Abdul Rahman Nor Abdul Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 2 2 64 75 Penggunaan Multimedia Dalam Mata Pelajaran Sejarah http://insaniah.umk.edu.my/journal/index.php/insaniah/article/view/57 <p>Mata pelajaran Sejarah merupakan salah satu mata pelajaran yang kurang diminati oleh pelajar walaupun subjek sejarah kini telah dijadikan mata pelajaran wajib lulus. Justeru, kaedah pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang berkesan perlu diwujudkan bagi menangani masalah ini. Tujuan kajian ini dijalankan adalah untuk mengenal pasti tahap penggunaan multimedia dalam mata pelajaran Sejarah dan hubungannya dengan minat belajar sejarah. Kajian ini dijalankan di Mukah, Sarawak yang melibatkan 60 orang pelajar Tingkatan Empat. Instrumen kajian yang digunakan adalah borang soal selidik yang mengandungi enam bahagian. Kajian rintis telah dilakukan ke atas 30 orang pelajar dan nilai alpha yang diperoleh adalah mempunyai kebolehpercayaan yang tinggi iaitu bahagian B (.754), bahagian C (.704), bahagian D (.721), bahagian E (.773) dan bahagian F (.863). Analisis data telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan <em>Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 20.0</em> untuk menjalankan <em>t-test</em> dan ANOVA. Dapatan kajian mendapati bahawa penggunaan sumber adalah berada pada tahap sederhana. Analisis inferensi mendapati bahawa tidak terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan antara jantina dan etnik dari segi penggunaan sumber dalam mata pelajaran Sejarah. Namun terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan penggunaan sumber dalam mata pelajaran Sejarah berdasarkan tahap pencapaian akademik pelajar.</p> <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>History is one of the subjects that students are less interested in, even though History has now become to compulsory subjects. Hence, an effective teaching and learning methods need to be established to address this problem. The purpose of this study was to identify the level of multimedia use in the History subject and its relationship with the interest of learning history. This study was conducted in Mukah, Sarawak involving 60 Form Four students. The research instrument used is a questionnaire consisting of six parts. The pilot study was conducted on 30 students and the alpha value obtained was high reliability which are part B (.754), part C (.704), part D (.721), part E (.773) and part F (.863). Data analysis has been done using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 20.0 to run t-test and ANOVA. The findings show that resource utilization is at moderate level. Inference analysis found that there was no significant difference between gender and ethnicity in terms of resource use in History subjects. However, there are significant differences in the use of resources in History subjects based on students' academic achievement levels.</p> Nur Syazwani Abdul Talib Mohd Mahzan Awang Kamarulzaman Abdul Ghani Nur Azuki Yusuff ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 2 2 86 98